Archive for June, 2009

ACE 5.7 Changes You Should Know About, But (Probably) Don’t

June 29, 2009

ACE 5.7 was released last week (see my newsletter article for info including new platforms supported at ACE 5.7). It was a happy day for ACE users, as ACE 5.7 contains many important fixes, especially in the Service Configurator framework and the ACE_Dev_Poll_Reactor class. Indeed, a recent survey of Riverace’s ACE support customers revealed that nearly 53% are planning to upgrade to ACE 5.7 immediately.

As the rollouts started happening, a few unsuspected changes were noticed that users should know about. Riverace posted these notes in the ACE Knowledge Base last week but I’m also proactively describing them here because I suspect there may be more users out there who may trip over these issues as ACE 5.7 adoption picks up.

The LIB Makefile Variable

Many ACE users reuse the ACE GNU Makefile scheme to take advantage of ACE’s well-tuned system for knowing how to build ACE applications. This is a popular mechanism to reuse because it automatically picks up the ACE configuration settings and compiler options. This is very important to ensure that ACE-built settings match the application’s ACE-related settings for a successful build.

When reusing the ACE make scheme to build libraries the LIB makefile variable specifies the library name to build. This has worked for many years. However, during ACE 5.7 development support was added to the GNU Make scheme to enable its use on Windows with Visual C++. Visual C++ uses the LIB environment variable as a search path for libraries at link time, which clashed with the existing use of the LIB variable. Therefore, the old LIB variable was renamed to LIB_CHECKED. This broke existing builds.

Since the Windows case requires LIB be left available for Visual C++, the name change wasn’t reverted; however, I added a patch that reverts the LIB behavior on non-Windows build systems. The patch will be available in the ACE 5.7.1 bug-fix-only beta as well as in ACE 5.7a for Riverace support customers. If you’re stuck on this problem now, and you’re a support customer, open a case to get the patch immediately.

Note that if you generate your application’s project files with MPC instead of hand-coding to the ACE make scheme, you can avoid the LIB name problem by regenerating your projects after ACE 5.7 is installed.

Symlink Default for Build Libaries Changed from Absolute to Relative

When ACE builds libraries it can “install” them by creating a symbolic link. In ACE 5.6 and earlier, the link used an absolute path to the original file. In ACE 5.7 the default behavior changed to create a link relative to the $ACE_ROOT/ace directory. This helps to enable relocating an entire tree without breaking the links, but in some cases can cause invalid links. For example, if you are building your own libraries that do not get relocated with ACE, or won’t have the same directory hierarchy, the links will not be valid.

To change to the pre-5.7 behavior of creating links with absolute pathnames, build with the make variable symlinks=absolute. You can either specify symlinks=absolute on the make command line or add it to your $ACE_ROOT/include/makeinclude/platform_macros.GNU file prior to including wrapper_macros.GNU.

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Revised ACE_Dev_Poll_Reactor Fixes Multithread Issues (and more!) on Linux

June 15, 2009

When ACE 5.7 is released this week it will contain an important fix (a number of them, actually) for use cases that rely on multiple threads running the Reactor event loop concurrently on Linux. The major fix areas involved for ACE_Dev_Poll_Reactor in ACE 5.7 are:

  • Dispatching events from multiple threads concurrently
  • Properly handling changes in handle registration during callbacks
  • Change in suspend/resume behavior to be more ACE_TP_Reactor-like

At the base of these fixes was a foundational change in the way ACE_Dev_Poll_Reactor manages events returned from Linux epoll. Prior to this change, ACE would obtain all ready events from epoll and then each event loop-executing thread in turn would pick the next event from that set and dispatch it. This design was, I suppose, more or less borrowed from the ACE_Select_Reactor event demultiplexing strategy. In that case it made sense since select() is relatively expensive and avoiding repeated scans of all the watched handles is a good thing. Also, the ACE_Select_Reactor (and ACE_TP_Reactor, which inherits from it) have a mechanism to note that something in the handle registrations changed, signifying that select() must be called again. This mechanism was lacking in ACE_Dev_Poll_Reactor.

However, unlike with select(), it’s completely unnecessary to try to avoid calls to epoll_wait(). Epoll is much more scalable than is select(), and letting epoll manage the event queue, only passing back one event at a time, is much simpler than the previous design, and also much easier to get correct. So that was the first change: obtain one event per call to epoll_wait(), letting Linux manage the event queue and weed out events for handles that are closed, etc. The second change was to add the EPOLLONESHOT option bit to the event registration for each handle. The effect of this is that once an event for a particular handle is delivered from epoll_wait(), that handle is effectively suspended. No more events for the handle will be delivered until the handle’s event mask is re-enabled via epoll_ctl(). These two changes were used to fix and extend ACE_Dev_Poll_Reactor as follows.

Dispatching Events from Multiple Threads Concurrently

The main defect in the previous scheme was the possibility that events obtained from epoll_wait() could be delivered to an ACE_Event_Handler object that no longer existed. This was the primary driver for fixing ACE_Dev_Poll_Reactor. However, another less likely, but still possible, situation was that callbacks for a handler could be called out of order, triggering time-sensitive ordering problems that are very difficult to track down. Both these situations are resolved by only obtaining one I/O event per ACE_Reactor::handle_events() iteration. A side-effect of this change is that the concurrency behavior of ACE_Dev_Poll_Reactor changes from being similar to ACE_WFMO_Reactor (simultaneous callbacks to the same handler are possible) to being similar to ACE_TP_Reactor (only one I/O callback for a particular handle at a time). Since epoll’s behavior with respect to when a handle’s availability for more events differs from Windows’s WaitForMultipleObjects, the old multiple-concurrent-calls-per-handle couldn’t be done correctly anyway, so the new ACE_Dev_Poll_Reactor behavior leads to easier coding and programs that are much more likely to be correct when changing reactor use between platforms.

Properly handling changes in handle registration during callbacks

A difficult problem to track down sometimes arose in the previous design when a callback handler changed handle registration. In such a case, if the reactor made a subsequent callback to the original handler (for example, if the callback returned -1 and needed to be removed) the callback may be made to the wrong handler – the new registered handler instead of the originally called handler. This problem was fixed by making some changes and additions to the dispatching data structures and code and is no longer an issue.

Change in suspend/resume behavior to be more ACE_TP_Reactor-like

An important aspect of ACE_TP_Reactor’s ability to support complicated use cases arising in systems such as TAO is that a dispatched I/O handler is suspended around the upcall. This prevents multiple events from being dispatched simultaneously. As previously mentioned, the changes to ACE_Dev_Poll_Reactor also effectively suspend a handler around an upcall. However, a feature once only available with the ACE_TP_Reactor is that an application can specify that the application,  not the ACE reactor, will resume the suspended handler. This capability is important to properly supporting the nested upcall capability in TAO, for example. The revised ACE_Dev_Poll_Reactor now also has this capability. Once the epoll changes were made to effectively suspend a handler around an upcall, taking advantage of the existing suspend-resume setting in ACE_Event_Handler was pretty straight-forward.

So, if you’ve been holding off on using ACE_Dev_Poll_Reactor on Linux because it was unstable with multiple threads, or you didn’t like the concurrency behavior and the instability it may bring, I encourage you to re-evaluate this area when ACE 5.7 is released this week. And if you’ve ever wondered what good professional support services are, I did this work for a support customer who is very happy they didn’t have to pay hourly for this. And many more people will be happy that since I wasn’t billing for time I could freely fix tangential issues not in the original report such as the application-resume feature. Everyone wins: the customer’s problem is resolved and ACE’s overall product quality and functionality are improved. Enjoy!

How We Converted the Apache Qpid C++ Build to CMake

June 1, 2009

A previous post covered why the Apache Qpid C++ build switched to CMake; this post describes how it was done.

The project was generously funded by Microsoft. We started the conversion in February 2009. At this point, the builds have been running well for a while; the test executions are not quite done. So, it took about 3 months to get the builds running on both Linux and Windows. We’re working on the testing aspects now. We have not really addressed the installation steps yet. There were only two aspects of the Qpid build conversion that weren’t completely straight forward:

  1. The build processes XML versions of the AMQP specification and the Qpid Management Framework specification to generate a lot of the code. The names of the generated files are not known a priori. The generator scripts produce a list of the generated files in addition to the files themselves. This list of files obviously needs to be plugged into the appropriate places when generating the makefiles.
  2. There are a number of optional features to build into Qpid. In addition to explicitly enabling or disabling the features, the autoconf scheme checked for the requisite capabilities and enabled the features when the user didn’t specify. It built as much as it could if the user didn’t specify what to build (or not to build).

To start, one person on the team (Cliff Jansen of Interop Systems) ran the existing automake through the KDE conversion steps to get a base set of CMakeLists.txt files and did some initial prototyping for the code generation step. The original autoconf build ran the code generator at make time if the source XML specifications were available at configure time (in a release kit, the generated sources are already there, and the specs are not in the kit). The Makefile.am file then included the generated lists of sources to generate the Makefile from which the product was built. Where to place the code generating step in the CMake scheme was a big question. We considered two options:

  • Do the code generation in the generated Makefile (or Visual Studio project). This had the advantage of being able to leverage the build system’s dependency evaluation and regenerate the code as needed. However, once generated, the Makefile (or Visual Studio project) would need to be recreated by CMake. Recall that the code generation generates a list of source files that must be in the Makefile. We couldn’t get this to be as seamless as desired.
  • Do the code generation in the CMake configuration step. This puts the dependency evaluation in the CMakeLists.txt file, and had to be coded by hand since we wouldn’t have the build system’s dependency evaluation available. However, once the code was generated, the list of generated source files was readily available for inclusion in the Makefile (and Visual Studio project) file generation and the build could proceed smoothly.

We elected the second approach for ease of use. The CMakeLists code for generating the AMQP specification-based code looks like this (note this code is covered by the Apache license):

# rubygen subdir is excluded from stable distributions
# If the main AMQP spec is present, then check if ruby and python are
# present, and if any sources have changed, forcing a re-gen of source code.
set(AMQP_SPEC_DIR ${qpidc_SOURCE_DIR}/../specs)
set(AMQP_SPEC ${AMQP_SPEC_DIR}/amqp.0-10-qpid-errata.xml)
if (EXISTS ${AMQP_SPEC})
  include(FindRuby)
  include(FindPythonInterp)
  if (NOT RUBY_EXECUTABLE)
    message(FATAL_ERROR "Can't locate ruby, needed to generate source files.")
  endif (NOT RUBY_EXECUTABLE)
  if (NOT PYTHON_EXECUTABLE)
    message(FATAL_ERROR "Can't locate python, needed to generate source files.")
  endif (NOT PYTHON_EXECUTABLE)

  set(specs ${AMQP_SPEC} ${qpidc_SOURCE_DIR}/xml/cluster.xml)
  set(regen_amqp OFF)
  set(rgen_dir ${qpidc_SOURCE_DIR}/rubygen)
  file(GLOB_RECURSE rgen_progs ${rgen_dir}/*.rb)
  # If any of the specs, or any of the sources used to generate code, change
  # then regenerate the sources.
  foreach (spec_file ${specs} ${rgen_progs})
    if (${spec_file} IS_NEWER_THAN ${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR}/rubygen.cmake)
      set(regen_amqp ON)
    endif (${spec_file} IS_NEWER_THAN ${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR}/rubygen.cmake)
  endforeach (spec_file ${specs})
  if (regen_amqp)
    message(STATUS "Regenerating AMQP protocol sources")
    execute_process(COMMAND ${RUBY_EXECUTABLE} -I ${rgen_dir} ${rgen_dir}/generate gen
                           {specs} all ${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR}/rubygen.cmake
                           WORKING_DIRECTORY ${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR})
  else (regen_amqp)
    message(STATUS "No need to generate AMQP protocol sources")
  endif (regen_amqp)
else (EXISTS ${AMQP_SPEC})
  message(STATUS "No AMQP spec... won't generate sources")
endif (EXISTS ${AMQP_SPEC})

# Pull in the names of the generated files, i.e. ${rgen_framing_srcs}
include (rubygen.cmake)

With the code generation issue resolved, I was able to get the rest of the project building on both Linux and Windows without much trouble. The cmake@cmake.org email list was very helpful when questions came up.

The remaining not-real-clear-for-a-newbie area was how to best handle building optional features. Where the original autoconf script tried to build as much as possible without the user specifying, I put in simpler CMake language to allow the user to select options, try the configure, and adjust settings if a feature (such as SSL libraries) was not available. This took away a convenient feature for building as much as possible without user intervention, though with CMake’s ability to very easily adjust the settings and re-run the configure, I didn’t think this was much of a loss.

Shortly after I got the first set of CMakeLists.txt files checked into the Qpid subversion repository, other team members started iterating on the initial CMake-based build. Andrew Stitcher from Red Hat quickly zeroed in on the removed capability to build as much as possible without user intervention. He developed a creative approach to setting the CMake defaults in the cache based on some initial system checks. For example, this is the code that sets up the SSL-enabling default based on whether or not the required capability is available on the build system (note this code is covered by the Apache license):

# Optional SSL/TLS support. Requires Netscape Portable Runtime on Linux.

include(FindPkgConfig)

# According to some cmake docs this is not a reliable way to detect
# pkg-configed libraries, but it's no worse than what we did under
# autotools
pkg_check_modules(NSS nss)

set (ssl_default ${ssl_force})
if (CMAKE_SYSTEM_NAME STREQUAL Windows)
else (CMAKE_SYSTEM_NAME STREQUAL Windows)
  if (NSS_FOUND)
    set (ssl_default ON)
  endif (NSS_FOUND)
endif (CMAKE_SYSTEM_NAME STREQUAL Windows)

option(BUILD_SSL "Build with support for SSL" ${ssl_default})
if (BUILD_SSL)

  if (NOT NSS_FOUND)
    message(FATAL_ERROR "nss/nspr not found, required for ssl support")
  endif (NOT NSS_FOUND)

  foreach(f ${NSS_CFLAGS})
    set (NSS_COMPILE_FLAGS "${NSS_COMPILE_FLAGS} ${f}")
  endforeach(f)

  foreach(f ${NSS_LDFLAGS})
    set (NSS_LINK_FLAGS "${NSS_LINK_FLAGS} ${f}")
  endforeach(f)

  # ... continue to set up the sources and targets to build.
endif (BUILD_SSL)

With that, the Apache Qpid build is going strong with CMake.

During the process I developed a pattern for naming CMake variables that play a part in user configuration and, later, in the code. There are two basic prefixes for cache variables:

  • BUILD_* variables control optional features that the user can build. For example, the SSL section shown above uses BUILD_SSL. Using a common prefix, especially one that collates near the front of the alphabet, puts options that users change most often right at the top of the list, and together.
  • QPID_HAS_* variables note variances about the build system that affect code but not users. For example, is a header file present, or a particular system call.

Future efforts in this area will complete the transition of the test suite to CMake/CTest, which will have the side affect of making it much easier to script the regression test on Windows. The last area to be addressed will be how downstream packagers make use of the new CMake/CPack system for building RPMs, Windows installers, etc. Stay tuned…